All you need to know about the ethereum london hard fork upgrade.

Published 25 Jun 2021 by Radhika Aggarwal

Table of Content

  1. What was ethereum Berlin Hard Fork about?
  2. Learn more about the upcoming Ethereum London hard fork
  3. What is Ethereum Shanghai Hard Fork?

In 2021 there is enormous progress coming in the field of the crypto industry. Ethereum is bringing its upgrades, one was the ethereum berlin hard fork, and the other is the ethereum London hard fork. In this article, we will discuss both of these upgrades along with the Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) that will be packaged with them.

We are currently looking forward to the Ethereum London Hard Fork during the summer; these are nothing new. For example, these include upgrades like the Ethereum Spurious Dragon, Ethereum Byzantium, Ethereum Constantinople, and the Ethereum St. Petersburg upgrades. In late 2019, the Ethereum Istanbul update was released, which was the last hard fork before Berlin.

What was ethereum Berlin Hard Fork about?


Ethereum Berlin Hard Fork was announced on March 8, so the Ethereum Foundation laid out the rough roadmap for how the Ethereum Berlin Hard Fork would become realized. The Berlin Hard Fork followed the Istanbul and Muir Glacier upgrades and went live on the Ethereum main net at block 12,244,000 on April 15, 2021. The Berlin Hard Fork implements a series of four Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) that introduce new transaction types and tinker with the gas costs associated with complex transactions. The EIPs incorporated in the Berlin Hard Fork are:

  • EIP-2565: Lowers the cost of a specific set of transaction types that use modular exponentiation, i.e., ModExp (0x00..05).
  • EIP-2929: Increases the cost of those transaction types that use state access ‘opcodes’ upon first initialization. These transaction types were a significant reason behind the denial of service attacks on Ethereum in the past, and EIP-2929 fixes this issue.
  • EIP-2718: Introduces a new transaction type called ‘envelope transactions’ that brings backward compatibility to all the recent transaction types.
  • EIP-2930: Adds a new transaction type that allows users to create future templates for complex transactions (based on EIP-2718 envelope transactions) to lower gas costs and improve processing

Learn more about the upcoming Ethereum London hard fork

The Ethereum London Hard Fork is scheduled for July 2021. The Ethereum London hard fork updates are changing the blockchain’s transaction fee model and the difficulty time bomb. The Ethereum network will set transaction fees with a base fee for each block rather than bidding on gas prices. Ethereum’s London hard fork is an update to the Ethereum blockchain, coming soon after the April 2021 Berlin hard fork. There are a total of six Ethereum Improvement Protocols (EIPs). Out of these 6 EIPs, the two officially presented as a part of the Ethereum London Hard Fork are EIP-1559 and EIP-3238. Let us explain the EIPs below:

  • EIP-1559’ Fee Market Change for ETH 1.0 Chain’: EIP-1559 will contain a” transaction pricing mechanism” involving a fixed network fee burned, which dynamically increases or reduces block sizes to combat network congestion.
  • EIP-3238” Ethereum Difficulty Bomb Delay”: To know more about EIP-3238, you must first learn about the Ethereum Difficulty bomb. The Ethereum Difficulty Bomb is a part of Ethereum that raises the difficulty level of Ethereum Proof of Work puzzles. The EIP-3238 delays the Ethereum difficulty bomb so that 30 second block times won’t occur until mid-2022.

What is Ethereum Shanghai Hard Fork?

After the Ethereum London Hard fork that is likely to come in July 2021, Ethereum Shanghai Hard Fork will be scheduled for October 2021. Although it will come in the future, rumors are being started about the Ethereum Shanghai Hard Fork. This Hard Fork is named after Devcon2, which took place in Shanghai back in 2016. This Hard Fork will be pretty different from the London and Berlin mentioned above as it will not focus on the features as the other two used to do. Instead, the Shanghai fork might revolve around the Ethereum 2.0 merge. The Ethereum Shanghai Hard Fork will be focusing on merging Ethereum and Ethereum 2.0.

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